Assessments

NAEP Assessment Item, Grade 4: Write a multiplication number sentence

Discipline

Mathematics

Grades

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Ohio Mathematics Academic Content Standards (2001)

Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard

Benchmarks (K–2)

I.

Model, represent and explain multiplication as repeated addition, rectangular arrays and skip counting.

Benchmarks (3–4)

H.

Use relationships between operations, such as subtraction as the inverse of addition and division as the inverse of multiplication.

Grade Level Indicators (Grade 1)

13.

Model and represent multiplication as repeated addition and rectangular arrays in contextual situations; e.g., four people will be at my party and if I want to give 3 balloons to each person, how many balloons will I need to buy?

Grade Level Indicators (Grade 2)

7.

Model, represent and explain multiplication as repeated addition, rectangular arrays and skip counting.

Grade Level Indicators (Grade 3)

8.

Model, represent and explain multiplication; e.g., repeated addition, skip counting, rectangular arrays and area model. For example:
a. Use conventional mathematical symbols to write equations for word problems involving multiplication.
b. Understand that, unlike addition and subtraction, the factors in multiplication and division may have different units; e.g., 3 boxes of 5 cookies each.

10.

Explain and use relationships between operations, such as:
a. relate addition and subtraction as inverse operations;
b. relate multiplication and division as inverse operations;
c. relate addition to multiplication (repeated addition);
d. relate subtraction to division (repeated subtraction).

Grade Level Indicators (Grade 5)

8.

Identify and use relationships between operations to solve problems.

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics

Number and Operations Standard

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another

Expectations (Pre-K–2)

understand situations that entail multiplication and division, such as equal groupings of objects and sharing equally.

Expectations (3–5)

understand various meanings of multiplication and division;

identify and use relationships between operations, such as division as the inverse of multiplication, to solve problems;

Students are asked to write a number sentence using multiplication to represent a word problem stated as repeated addition. This constructed-response question is a sample test item used in grade 4 in the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress (see About NAEP). The URL link (above) takes the user directly to the NAEP test item, with access to performance data by various subgroups of students, a scoring guide, sample student responses, and a discussion of the content on which the item is based. The NAEP website allows users to build their own printable database of test items by clicking on

Add Questionin the upper right hand corner of the screen. NAEP Reference Number: 2003-4M10, No. 5. (sw)