Ohio Resource Center
NAEP Assessment Item, Grade 4: Compare Geometric Shapes
Prekindergarten, Kindergarten, 1, 2, 3, 4
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Professional Commentary

This item asks students to explain how squares differ from triangles. This constructed-response question is a sample test item used in grades 4, 8, and 12 in the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (see About NAEP). The URL link (above) takes the user directly to the NAEP test item, with access to performance data by various subgroups of students, a scoring guide, sample student responses, and a discussion of the content on which the item is based. The NAEP website allows users to build their own printable database of test items by clicking on Add Question in the upper right hand corner of the screen. NAEP Reference Number: 1996-4M10, No. 1. (sw)

Ohio Mathematics Academic Content Standards (2001)
Geometry and Spatial Sense Standard
Benchmarks (K–2)
Sort and compare two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects according to their characteristics and properties.
Benchmarks (3–4)
Provide rationale for groupings and comparisons of two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects.
Use attributes to describe, classify and sketch plane figures and build solid objects.
Grade Level Indicators (Grade Prekindergarten)
Sort and classify similar two- and three-dimensional objects in the environment and play situations (e.g., paper shapes, 2 balls of different size).
Identify, name, create and describe common two-dimensional shapes in the environment and play situations (e.g., circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares).
Grade Level Indicators (Grade Kindergarten)
Identify and sort two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. For example: a. Identify and describe two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects from the environment using the child's own vocabulary. b. Sort shapes and objects into groups based on student-defined categories. c. Select all shapes or objects of one type from a group. d. Build two-dimensional figures using paper shapes or tangrams; build simple three-dimensional objects using blocks.
Grade Level Indicators (Grade 1)
Identify, compare, and sort two-dimensional shapes; i.e., square, circle, ellipse, triangle, rectangle, rhombus, trapezoid, parallelogram, pentagon, and hexagon. For example: a. Recognize and identify triangles and rhombuses independent of position, shape or size; and b. Describe two-dimensional shapes using attributes such as number of sides and number of vertices (corners, or angles).
Grade Level Indicators (Grade 3)
Analyze and describe properties of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects using terms such as vertex, edge, angle, side and face.
Grade Level Indicators (Grade 4)
Describe, classify, compare and model two- and three-dimensional objects using their attributes.
Principles and Standards for School Mathematics
Geometry Standard
Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships
Expectations (Pre-K–2)
recognize, name, build, draw, compare, and sort two- and three-dimensional shapes;
describe attributes and parts of two- and three-dimensional shapes;
Expectations (3–5)
identify, compare, and analyze attributes of two- and three-dimensional shapes and develop vocabulary to describe the attributes;
classify two- and three-dimensional shapes according to their properties and develop definitions of classes of shapes such as triangles and pyramids;